Improve soil tilth
A soil that is in good tilth, or physical condition, is loose and easy to work, and has proper water-holding capacity, drainage, and aeration. You can improve your soil tilth by adding organic matter, either by spreading manure, compost, or similar matter on the soil and working it in before planting or by turning under a green-manure crop.
Stable manureis a common form of organic matter used in gardens, although it is not readily available. It can also fulfill part of the fertilizer requirements of the soil. Because stable manure is low in phosphorus, add 1 to 1½ pounds of superphosphate to each bushel of manure. Use 500 to 1,000 pounds of horse or cattle manure per 1,000 square feet. Poultry, sheep, and goat manure should be used at half this rate.
Compost is an excellent source of organic matter and is easy to produce. It can be made from leaves, straw, grass clippings, manure, and any other disease-free waste vegetable matter. To make compost, pile these materials in layers as they accumulate during the season. Add 1 pound of a lime-fertilizer mixture to each 10 pounds of dry refuse; add ¼ pound to each 10 pounds of green material. The mixture can be made from 5 pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer plus 2 pounds of fine limestone. This fertilizer treatment will hasten decay and improve the fertility of the compost. Spread soil over the material to hold it in place (Fig. 1). Water the pile to keep it damp and occasionally turn and mix the soil and decaying material. The pile will be ready to spread over garden soil in 6 to 12 months.
By growing a green-manure or cover crop, such as rye or oats, during the fall and spring and plowing it under, you can improve your soil tilth. The seed can be broadcast over worked-up unplanted areas and between rows of late vegetables. Stir the seed into the soil with a rake, hand cultivator, or harrow.
Fertilize the soil
Fertilizer applications should be made before planting. Later in the season additional applications may be necessary.
Have your soil tested, especially if it is your first year in your present location. A soil test will indicate the amount and availability of nutrients in your soil. Gather small amounts of soil from about eight well-scattered spots in your garden, mix them together, dry at room temperature, wrap in a sturdy ½-pint container, mark the container “For Vegetable Garden” and take it to the nearest soil testing laboratory. If you do not who does soil testing in your area, contact your local extension office. The lab will analyze the soil and send results of the test along with fertilizer and lime recommendations for your garden.
Correct soil acidity
A slightly acid soil is best for growing most vegetables. If the soil test indicates that your soil is more acid than it should be, apply the recommended amount of lime. Add lime only if it is needed and avoid overliming.
Some soils are too alkaline. This can be corrected by adding sulfur to the soil. A soil test will indicate whether your soil is too alkaline. Work the lime or sulfur into the soil at the same time that you apply fertilizer.
Plow and prepare the seedbed properly
Plowing or spading can be done in either the spring or the fall. With fall plowing the soil can be worked and planted earlier in the spring, but not as much cover crop can be grown as with spring plowing.
Do not plow or spade the soil when it is too wet. A good test is to squeeze a handful of soil in your hand. It should crumble and not feel sticky.
You may apply fertilizer just before plowing or spading. Turn the ground over to a depth of about 8 inches. If fertilizer is added to the soil after plowing, rake or harrow the plowed area to work the fertilizer into the soil.
Just before planting prepare the seedbed for planting by working the soil with a rake or harrow. A freshly prepared seedbed will prevent weeds from coming up before the vegetables.
For small-seeded crops a smooth and finely pulverized surface insures easier planting, better germination, and a more even stand. Heavy soils low in organic matter should not be worked into too fine a consistency because they tend to get hard and crusty, preventing emergence of seedlings. Many Illinois soils should not be overworked.